A gene is a section of the genetic material or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a cell. Genes, alone or in combination, determine what features (genetic traits) a person inherits from his or her parents, such as blood type, hair color, eye color, and other characteristics, including risks for certain diseases.
Many genes together make up chromosomes. Defects in genes or chromosomes may cause changes in certain body processes or functions. These changes may be undetectable or may cause genetic diseases, such as hemophilia or Down syndrome. Genetic problems may also increase the risk for some conditions, such as heart disease and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Gene changes (mutations) can be passed from parents to children. Diseases that run in families are often caused by genetic changes. A person may be born with a certain genetic makeup that makes him or her susceptible or at risk for a certain condition.