Testicular Cancer Care at Kaiser Permanente

Compared to other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. It is more likely to occur in young or middle-aged men, and it is the most common cancer in men 20 to 35 years old. Because there are different types of cells in the testicles, there are different types of testicular cancer and they are treated differently.  

At Kaiser Permanente medical offices, our patients with testicular cancer receive treatment based on the latest technology and research. Our urologists and cancer specialists work together to find the most effective treatment for each patient’s individual needs.

What Is Testicular Cancer?

Testicular cancer is when abnormal cells in one or both testicles begin to grow out of control. The testicles, also called testes, are under the penis in a loose bag of skin called the scrotum. They are male sex glands that make and store sperm and the male hormone testosterone. 

Signs and symptoms

Testicular cancer is often found during a physical exam, when the doctor checks a man’s testicles. Sometimes men find the cancer themselves by noticing unusual signs or symptoms such as:

  • A painless lump or swelling in a testicle
  • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or scrotum
  • A change in the size, feel, or shape of a testicle
  • Dull pain in the lower abdomen, back, or groin

These symptoms can also be caused by conditions other than cancer, so it’s important to talk to a doctor right away if you have these, or any other symptoms that concern you.


No one knows exactly what causes testicular cancer, however, there are some things that can increase a man’s risk including:

  • A testicle that hasn’t dropped from the belly into the scrotum
  • A genetic abnormality that affects a male chromosome
  • Personal or family history of testicular cancer

To learn more, see Testicular Cancer.